BSc (Hons) Degree in Biotechnology

BSc (Hons) Degree in Biotechnology

NUST code:

 

DURATION:

 4 Years

TYPE OF DEGREE:

HONOURS

CREDIT LOAD:

 504 Credits

LEVEL 
 

 SADC-QF - Level 8

ACCREDITATION ORGANISATION(S):

 Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (ZIMCHE)


PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAMME

To produce high quality graduates equipped with appropriate knowledge, skills and values to be effective in the application of modern techniques and concepts in various fields of Biotechnology.

PROGRAMME CHARACTERISTICS
Areas of Study:
The programme comprises but is not limited to the following areas in terms of teaching and research; environmental biotechnology, industrial biotechnology, medical biotechnology and agricultural biotechnology.

Specialist Focus:

The programme provides a sound academic and practical foundation for future- and self- employment in the various fields of Biotechnology.
Orientation:
Research and innovation oriented. Teaching and learning are professionally oriented and focused on practical aspects.
Normal Entry
Applicants must have obtained at least two science subject passes at ‘A’ Level in Biology and Chemistry.

Special entry

Candidates who have successfully completed at least a National Diploma in Biotechnology or its recognized equivalent may apply for entry into Part I. Candidates should normally have 2 years post qualification working experience and may be required to attend and pass an interview.

Mature entry

Applicants who are at least 25 years of age on the first day of the academic year in which admission is sought and who are not eligible for entry under the Normal or Special Entry Regulation may apply for mature age entry provided that they have passed at least 5 ‘O’ level subjects including English Language and Mathematics. They should demonstrate potential suitability for university studies by virtue of their attainments or relevant work experience. Normally applicants should have completed their full-time school or college education at least 5 years before the start of the academic year in which admission is sought. Applicants may be required to attend interviews.

DURATION

The Programme runs over a period of four years.
The programme consists of four parts which includes one year Industrial Attachment taken in Year III. In Year IV, a student shall carry out and complete a research project. In the second semester of Year IV, a student will be able to specialize in a specific field of Biotechnology by choosing four elective modules in the area of Industrial, Medical, Environmental or Agricultural Biotechnology. Elective modules will only be offered subject to availability of teaching staff.

Electives

Elective modules are grouped into four disciplines and a student shall be expected to select a discipline.
Table 1: Elective Modules
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DISCIPLINE

Environmental
Biotechnology
Industrial Biotechnology
Medical Biotechnology
Agricultural Biotechnology

Teaching and Learning Methods:
Lectures, tutorials, laboratory classes, seminars, group work, industrial visits, industrial attachment, research project, individual independent study.

Assessment Methods:

Written and oral examinations, tests, laboratory reports, seminar presentations, industrial attachment report, final year research project report, continuous assessments.

Purpose

The programme is designed and modelled to equip students with the practical uses of biotechnology knowledge and to inculcate in the students an entrepreneurial and problem-solving ability. It emphasizes biotechnologies and applications relevant to biotechnology based industries and institutions such as biomedical, agricultural, biopharmaceutical, biotechnological, food industries and the environment.

Objectives

To provide the students with a broad, sound and balanced knowledge in a range of areas of Biotechnology in a stimulating and supportive environment that is enriched by research.
To provide the students with appropriate laboratory skills and field experience.
To prepare the students for post-graduate research work in Biotechnology or other Biology-related disciplines.
To create in the students an appreciation of the importance of Biotechnology in agricultural, industrial, economic, environmental, technological and social development.
To provide students with a higher level of experience in independent analysis, criticism and research in their chosen field of expertise

Expected Learning Outcomes

Participate on the global community who understand and can contribute to the debate, research and experimentation on contemporary issues in the area of Biotechnology.
Design, conduct, analyze, and communicate (in writing and orally) their academic research.
Recognize and be able to apply basic ethical principles to basic and applied biological and biochemical practice and shall understand the role of biological/biochemical science, scientists, and practitioners in society.
Display sufficient practical skills and knowledge in Biotechnology to be sought-after practitioners in industries (brewing, dairy, baking, pharmaceutical), research institutions, tertiary education, manufacturing industries and in the medical sector in Zimbabwe, the region and the world at large.
Demonstrate a decisive approach in the evaluation of scientific data and information, including the capacity to apply relevant statistical analysis and use of statistical software.
Apply relevant Biotechnology techniques to solve real problems in industry.
Provide the students with the knowledge and skills to create employment in varied areas of Biotechnology.
Recommend the use and adoption of biotechnology to solve the challenge currently being faced by Zimbabwe, Africa and other developing countries around the world.
Analyze the opportunities for the use of biotechnology in business to bring about transformation in their own livelihoods and that of many others through poverty alleviation, better healthcare and job creation.

REGULATIONS

These regulations shall be read in conjunction with the Faculty of Applied Science and the NUST General Academic Regulations.
YEAR I
Module Code Module Description Credits
SBT 1101 Principles Of Microbiology 10
SBT 1102 Animal & Plant Physiology 10
SBB 1103 Cell Biology 10
SCS 1100 Information Technology & Computer Applications 10
SCH 1116 Organic Chemistry 10
ILI 1108 Communication Theory & Practice 10
SBT 1202 Introduction To Biotechnology 10
SBT 1201 Chemistry Of Biomolecules 10
SBT 1203 Biophysics & Instrumentation 10
SBB 1204 Genetics 10
SCH 1217 General Chemistry 10
CTL 1201 Conflict Transformation & Leadership 10

YEAR II
Module Code Module Description Credits
SBT 2109 Principles Of Fermentation Technology 12
SBB 2104 Introduction To Enzymology & Immunology 12
SBT 2101 Molecular Genetics 12
SBT 2102 Bacteriology & Mycology 12
SBT 2103 Virology 10
SBT 2104 Molecular Cell Biology 10
SBB2211 Principles Of Quality Control 10
SCH 2108 Principles Of Process Engineering 10
SBT 2201 Research Methods & Statistics 10
SBT 2202 Introduction To Analytical Biotechnology 12
SBT 2203 Introduction To Recombinant DNA Technology 12
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SBT 2204 Biotechnology Regulation & Biosafety 10

YEAR III
Module Code Module Description Credits
SBT 3000 Industrial Attachment 120
YEAR IV (132 Credits)
Module Code Module Description Credits
SBT 4010 Research Project 24
SBT 4101 Bioinformatics 12
SBT 4102 Business & Biotechnology 12
SBT 4103 Plant Biotechnology 12
SBT 4104 Molecular Systematics 12
SBT 4105 Animal Biotechnology 12

ELECTIVE MODULES
Module Code Module Description Credits
SBT 4201 Fundamentals Of Environmental Microbiology 12
SBT 4202 Bioremediation 12
SBT 4203 Biotechnology For Biofuels & Bioenergy 12
SBT 4202 Enzyme Biotechnology 12
SBT 4205 Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals 12
SBT 4206 Medical Biotechnology 12
SBT 4207 Industrial Biotechnology 12
SBT 4208 Plant Pathology 12
SBT 4209 Advanced Plant Biotechnology 12
YEAR I
SBT 1101 Principles Of Microbiology 10 Credits
This module looks at the historical development of microbiology; the scope of microbiology, Prokaryotic cell structure; microscopy and specimen preparation including staining methods and associated theoretical principles; microbial nutrition; classification of microbes; general properties and principles of classification of microorganisms as well as sterilization concepts and techniques.
SBT 1102 Animal & Plant Physiology 10 Credits
The module explores cell communication, hormonal control, sensory and nervous systems, muscle structure and diversity, muscle fibre types and regulation of contraction, evolution of digestive systems, nutrition, regulation of digestion and gut function, circulatory and respiratory systems, excretory system, plant form and function, transpiration, plant mineral nutrition, solute transport, phloem translocation, photosynthesis light reactions, photosynthesis carbon metabolism in; C3 and C4 plants, crassulacean acid metabolism, photorespiration, assimilation of mineral nutrients; nitrogen and sulphur, water stress physiology, plant growth regulators; auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid, control of flowering and the role of phytochrome in photo morphogenesis.
SBB 1103 Cell Biology 10 Credits
The module examines the cell concept; structure and function of cell organelles; cell junctions, cell matrix, cytoskeleton, cell membrane structure and function, electron and light microscopy, microtomy, somatic and gamete cell division, cell culture, cell differentiation and specialization as well as cells in Biotechnology.
SCS 1100 Information Technology & Computer Applications 10 Credits
The module is on data and Information, the Computer, hardware functional components, computer software, computer networking, computer security and emerging computer technologies.
SCH 1116 Organic Chemistry 10 Credits
The module looks at structure and bonding, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, introduction to mechanisms of reactions. Stereochemistry- Isomers and Stereoisomers, Benzene and its derivatives, Cyclohexane, Carbohydrates. Amino acids, Spectroscopy-Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as well as Mass Spectroscopy.
ILI 1108 Communication Theory & Practice 10 Credits
The module is an overview of Library Services, understanding information literacy, information sources, search strategies, evaluation information sources, use of information, legal and ethical issues and study skills
SBT 1202 Introduction To Biotechnology 10 Credits
The module is an introduction to the field of biotechnology. Topics include the history of biotechnology, areas of biotechnology, traditional vs. modern biotechnology, overview of recombinant DNA technology, DNA, genes and gene expression, transgenic plants and animals, introduction to green biotechnology, production of biological molecules, gene therapy and careers and employment in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries.
SBT 1201 Chemistry Of Biomolecules 10 Credits
The module explores the molecular and macromolecular structure of water, Carbohydrates. Classification, Lipids classification. Fatty acids’ prostaglandins; triacyaglycerols; phospholipids; steroids, Amino Acids. Structure, Physical and chemical properties Proteins. It also looks at classification function, bonds responsible for protein structure. Orders of protein structure, connective tissue proteins, collagen; elastin and proteoglycans; Nucleic acids. Nucleotides, Nucleosides Structure of DNA, DNA conformation, DNA supercoiling. Structure of messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA.
SBT 1203 Biophysics & Instrumentation 10 Credits
The module examines the general Biophysical methods – Measurement of pH, Radioactive labelling & counting, Autoradiography, Separation & Identification of Materials - concept of Chromatography. Centrifugation – Basic Principle of Centrifugation, Microscopy – Light microscopy, Bright & Dark Field microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, Phase Contrast microscopy, TEM, SEM, X-Ray Crystallography, X-ray diffraction, Concept of different crystal structure, determination of crystal structure Spectroscopy. NMR Spectroscopy and Absorption Spectroscopy.
SBB 1204 Genetics 10 Credits
The module is on cell division, Mendelian Genetics, Control of Gene Expression and Developmental Genetics, Organization of the Gerome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Bacterial Genetics, Human Genetics and Population genetics.
SCH 1217 General Chemistry 10 Credits
The module looks at the fundamental ideas of chemistry, Stoichiometry, Atoms and sub atomic particles, Electronic structures of atoms, Periodicity and chemical bonding, Chemical thermodynamics, Chemical kinetics, Chemical equilibrium, Ionic equilibrium and Nuclear chemistry.
CTL 1201 Conflict Transformation & Leadership 10 Credits
The thrust of the module is understanding peace and conflict; theories of conflict; conflict analysis and tools; economic roots of conflict; gender and conflict; leadership; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; women in
leadership; leadership ethics; interplay: leadership, conflict and development.

YEAR II
SBT 2109 Principles Of Fermentation Technology 12 Credits
The module is an introduction to fermentation processes with particular emphasis on those relevant to developing countries such as Zimbabwe. Aspects of microbial physiology and metabolism relevant to industrial fermentations. Industrial micro-organisms, Fermentation media. Fermentation equipment: Design of fermentators and facilities for process control are looked at. Solid state and submerged culture fermentations: Collection and purification of fermentation products, Treatment and disposal of fermentation effluents and Some features of selected fermentation processes are also covered.
SBB 2104 Introduction To Enzymology & Immunology 12 Credits
The module has the major characteristics of enzymes, Mechanism of enzyme reactions, Inhibition of enzyme reactions, Regulation of enzyme activity, Immunolobulins, Structure, Different classes of immunoglobulins, General processes of the immune response. Mechanism of action of T-cell mediators of the immune response Plasma B cells, Memory B cells, Mechanism of action of macrophages and Immune Deficient diseases –e.g. SCID, HIV.
SBT 2101 Molecular Genetics 12 Credits
The module explores the evidence of DNA as the genetic material, DNA structure and function, RNA structure and function, Central dogma of genetics, DNA replication, Transcription, Translation, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structure, genetic variation – mutation and recombination, Regulation of gene expression in porkaryotes and eukaryotes, Epigenetics, Natural plasmids, Biology of restriction as well as modification endonucleases and restriction.
SBT 2102 Bacteriology & Mycology 12 Credits
The module is about microbial growth; Mathematical description, Measurements, Batch cultures, continuos cultures Effect of environmental factors on microbial growth, control of microorganisms, Culture systems: pure cultures, mixed culture systems, Bacterial genetics, recombination, conjugation, transformation, Fungi culture techniques, media, terrestrial fungi major groups, phylogenetics, general characteristics, life cycles, importance in medicine, agriculture, industry and the ecology of fungi.
SBT 2103 Virology 10 Credits
The module examines the basic virology, capsid structure, genomes, complex viruses, Viral genome size and its effect on virus structure, structural mechanisms employed by viruses to enter host cells, How viruses maximise the protein coding potential of their genomes, virus replication cycles, bacteriophages, virus classification, viruses and biotechnology as well as the mechanisms viruses use to evade host defence responses.
SBT 2104 Molecular Cell Biology 10 Credits
This module is an introduction to the study of cell and molecular biology, Interactions between cells and their environment, Cytoplasmic membrane systems, The cytoskeleton and cell motility, The cytoskeleton and cell motility, Cellular reproduction, Cell signalling and Signal transduction, Cancer, Nature of the Gene and Genome and the molecular anatomy of genes and chromosomes.
SBB2211 Principles Of Quality Control 10 Credits
The module explores the concept of Quality in Food Processing, Process Control ,Statistical Quality Control, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP),Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Probability and Probability Distribution.
SCH 2108 Principles Of Process Engineering 10 Credits
The module highlights the fluid Mechanics, Fluid in Motion, Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Process Engineering Operations -Evaporation, Distillation, Liquid-liquid extraction, Leaching and Dehydration.
SBT 2201 Research Methods & Statistics 10 Credits
This is an introduction to the process of conducting research. research design introduction - Steps in the Process of Research. Writing a research proposal - Identifying a hypothesis and/or research problem, specifying a purpose, creating research questions. Reviewing literature. Ethics of research and informed consent. Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Research – Sampling, Collection, Techniques, interpretation. Sampling Concepts and Sampling Methods. Descriptive Statistics. Inferential Statistics - Drawing inference from data, Modelling assumptions, Identifying Patterns, Regression analysis, T-test, Analysis of Variance, Correlations and the Chi-square.
SBT 2202 Introduction To Analytical Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module loos at the molecular biology techniques (DNA and RNA extraction, molecular markers, real-time, multiplex and nested PCR, chromatographic techniques, electrophoretic techniques, centrifugation techniques, colorimetry, spectrophotometry and mass spectroscopy, Immunological techniques ELISA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, western blot, and flow cytometry as well as Sequencing methods (nucleotide and protein).
SBT 2203 Introduction To Recombinant DNA Technology 12 Credits
The module has the properties and applications of DNA modifying enzymes, introduction to cloning, Types of cloning and expression vectors, Labelling and detection of nucleic acid sequences, Gene libraries, applications of Polymerase Chain Reaction, Site directed mutagenesis, creation of transgenic organisms, synthetic biology vs Genetic Modifying Organisms, applications of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture, medicine and industry as well as the gene editing technologies.
SBT 2204 Biotechnology Regulation & Biosafety 10 Credits
This module examines the biosafety guidelines and regulations, Purpose of biosafety in terms of protection of ecosystems, public health, farm animals and plants, Biological risk assessment, Bio-containment facilities, practices and personal protective equipment, Microorganisms levels of containment, Decontamination and disinfection, Waste disposal, Biosecurity, Overview of the legal and socioeconomic impacts of biotechnology, Bioethical concerns on biotechnology products, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) – implications,procedures and types, effects of IPRs on developing countries as well as Patents, applications in biotechnology, examples of patents in biotechnology, impacts of patents.
YEAR III
SBT 3000 Industrial Attachment 120 Credits
YEAR IV (132 CREDITS)
SBT 4010 Research Project 24 Credits
The final year research project shall be carried out on an individual basis. In this module students are expected to demonstrate through application, the skills acquired throughout the programme. Students shall be expected to produce a final year project report as outlined in the guidelines for this module and shall be expected to defend their work in front of the Departmental panel of examiners.
SBT 4101 Bioinformatics 12 Credits
This module explores the use of Bioinformatics databases and software as research and educational tools. Students will use data mining tools to extract DNA and protein sequences from primary and secondary databases. Software tools will be used to compare and analyze these sequences and construct gene and protein models for solving research problems related to molecular evolution, drug discovery and genetic bases for development and disease. Major topics include- Protein Analysis, Nucleic acid sequence analysis, Data Mining, Post-Transcriptional Modifications Functional & Structural Proteomics, sequence alignments, primer design.
SBT 4102 Business & Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module examines the innovation and entrepreneurship, Law and regulations, Finance, Strategy, What is a biotech business?, Development and management of biotech businesses, managing the transition from a small entrepreneurial firm to a large, sustainable, professionally managed but still entrepreneurial corporation, being an entrepreneur and promoting entrepreneurship in a large corporation.
SBT 4103 Plant Biotechnology 12 Credits
This is an introduction to plant cell, protoplast and tissue culture, plant gene structure and genomic organization; transformation in plants, nuclear and plastid transformation; development of transgenic plants; molecular markers and marker-assisted selection in plants as well as GMO regulation.
SBT 4104 Molecular Systematics 12 Credits
The module looks at the molecular methods for studying DNA and protein sequence variation between individuals and among populations, Sequencing of target genomics regions for systematics (ribosomal DNA – 16S, ITS, 18S, mitochondrial sequences e.t.c), Measures of similarity from molecular marker and sequence data, clustering techniques, dendrograms and ordination techniques, parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood approaches for defining operational taxonomic units, Introduction to metagenomics, next generation sequencing of metagenomic samples, tools and approaches for analysing and interpreting metagenomic datasets (EBI metagenomics, MEGAN, MG-RAST), comparative metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics.
SBT 4105 Animal Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module deals with the mammalian cell culture, gene transfer methods in animals, transgenic animals, molecular techniques in animal diseases (detection, diagnosis and MDR profiling), animal propagation, conservation biology/ embryo transfer techniques, genetic modification in medicine, ethics and genetically engineered organisms.
ELECTIVE MODULES
SBT 4201 Fundamentals Of Environmental Microbiology 12 Credits
This module highlights the microbial cell structure and function; microbial growth; microbial metabolism and its regulation; microbial energetics; microbial metabolic diversity; microbial diversity - phylogenetic, physiologic and metabolic; microbial habitats – air, water, soil and extreme environments; microbial ecology; microbial ecosystems – aquatic and terrestrial; interactions among microbes; microbial interactions with the environment; biogeochemical cycles - carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, iron and oxygen; the microbiology of solid and liquid waste treatment; microbiology of portable water treatment.
SBT 4202 Bioremediation 12 Credits
The module covers a history of bioremediation; intrinsic and extrinsic bioremediation; in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation; environmental pollutants – organic and inorganic; pollutant availability; bioremediation process requirements; bioremediation strategies applicable to polluted aquatic, atmospheric and soil environments; important bacterial and fungal bioremediators; mechanisms of microbial catabolism of pollutants; the bioremediation of common xenobiotic organic pollutants: PAHs, PCBs, Pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, DDT; the bioremediation of heavy metals; Phytoremediation; Application of recombinant DNA technology in bioremediation; Pollutant biomonitoring and the limitations of bioremediation.
SBT 4203 Biotechnology For Biofuels & Bioenergy 12 Credits
The module looks at biofuels versus fossil fuels; Biofuels feedstock: lignocellulosic biomass, energy crops; Conversion and utilisation of biofuels feedstock; First generation biofuels: bioethanol; Second generation biofuels: lignin modification and degradation, cell wall degrading enzymes, lignocellulosic bioethanol, biodiesel (Jatropha), processing technology for FAME, biogas, Third generation biofuels: Hydrogen and biological processes for hydrogen production, Algae-based hydrogen production and water splitting, Microbe fuel cells; Traditional and molecular breeding of energy crops; metabolic engineering of energy crops; Commercialisation of biofuels; Biofuels and food security conflict; Bioenergy Industry Development and Government Policy.
SBT 4202 Enzyme Biotechnology 12 Credits
This module reviews the methods employed in bioseparations to obtain increased purity of biological products. It examines the methods of protein purification including protein precipitation, chromatographic and affinity methods, aqueous two-phase systems, protein and enzymes including genetically engineered organisms, industrial use of soluble enzyme products, carbohydrases, proteases and lipases in food industries, brewing and detergents, Methods of enzyme immobilization - Advantages and Disadvantages, Comparison of enzyme reactor designs for soluble and insoluble enzymes, Methods of using immobilized cells, both viable non-viable, for biotrans formations, Enzyme and cell based biotrans formations for production of pharmaceutical and fine chemicals, The use of enzymes in water-poor non-aqueous solvent, The use of enzymes and cells in aqueous two-phase systems. Enzymes in medical diagnostics and related analyses as well as biosensors utilizing enzymes and cells.
SBT 4205 Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals 12 Credits
This module is an introduction to biopharmaceuticals, Definition of biopharmaceuticals, Drug and product development process and stages, Upstream and downstream processes, Product formulation, Role of regulatory authorities, The biopharmaceutical environment and quality assurance and control, Production and medical applications of selected biotechnology products such as Insulin, FSH, blood coagulating factors VIII and IX, tPA, interferons, monoclonal antibodies and Gene therapy.
SBT 4206 Medical Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module is an introduction to the biology of disease and immunology, disease diagnostics and immunotechnology, monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibody production, drug development and gene therapy, vaccines and vaccine development, applications of gene profiling, micro-array techniques and DNA finger printing in medical science, stem cell technology and its potential applications, Gene therapy and diagnostic techniques in medicine.
SBT 4207 Industrial Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module looks at industrially relevant microorganisms and enzymes; isolation, characterisation, preservation and improvement of industrially important microorganisms; bioprospecting microbial enzymes from diverse environments, their characterisation and improvement; Fermentation processes: batch, continuous and fed-batch culture; fermenter design and operation; fermentation media; inoculum development, preservation and improvement; kinetics of growth and product formation; fermentation downstream processes; industrial processes for the production of microbial enzymes and microbial biomass, fuels and industrial chemicals, food and beverage products (alcoholic, dairy); biomining; production of bioplastics and biosurfactants; use of microbial enzymes in paper production and tannery industry; genetic engineering of plants and microbes for industrial processes.
SBT 4208 Plant Pathology 12 Credits
This module is an introduction to the importance of Plant Disease, Plant Disease – Concept, Description and Diagnosis, Cycle Terminology. Plant–Microbe Interactions – Cellular, Biochemical, and Molecular events that determine the diseased state. Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis and Disease Management: Host Resistance. Oomycota – Life Strategies of Plant
Pathogens, Infection Processes. Ascomycota – Host Defenses, Systemic Acquired Resistance and Review of Concepts, Disease Dynamics. Basidiomycota – Disease dynamics, Host Resistance. Bacteria – Disease Management, Biological Control. Virus Diseases and Virus Vectors – Life of a Virus, Disease Management: Transgenic Viral Resistance as well as Nematodes – Disease Management, Protection and Eradication.
SBT 4209 Advanced Plant Biotechnology 12 Credits
The module looks at the advanced plant cell, protoplast and tissue culture. Plant genetic engineering for pest, pathogen and disease resistance, herbicide tolerance, quality traits, biotic and abiotic stress, plants as bioreactors in the production of plastics, fats/oils, fibres, proteins and biofuels and plant molecular breeding.
Employability:
Production Managers, Quality controllers, Bio-engineer, Entrepreneur, Laboratory technicians in the food industry (brewing, baking, dairy etc), Pharmaceutical, Agricultural (seed production houses, feed manufacturers, egg and chicken industries), Medical (Laboratories at
Think in other terms
diagnostic and medical centres). Research scientists in research institutions, lecturers at Universities and polytechnics, biotechnology educators in the education sector. Some can proceed and pursue higher degrees. Some can become consultants or become entrepreneurs in biotechnology related businesses.
Further Studies:
PhD, MPhil in Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Biology, MSc in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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