National University Of Science & Technology

Faculty Of Medicine

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CLINICAL PRACTICE AND PATIENT CARE

This Division oversees training in the clinical study areas over a 3 year period.

 

Learning and Training Outcomes

The students should be able to:

  • Obtain history, to examine the patient and to formulate a working diagnosis.
  • Request appropriate laboratory investigations and to interpret results.
  • Institute correct management of patients.
  • Formulate a working plan of continuum of care for discharged and ambulatory patients.
  • Institute at patient level a concept of health promotion.

 

Learning Approaches and Strategies for the Clinical Studies:

The MBBS curriculum is designed to engender life-long learning and to produce a practitioner who can practise evidence-based medicine in a humane and holistic fashion.

  1. Objective driven, guided, self-directed study with small group tutorials.
  2. Broadly integrated approach – laterally and vertically across the clinical curriculum.
  3. Acquisition of clinical skills: ethically appropriate physical examination (inspection, listening, palpation, auscultation, percussion etc), internal examination strategies, appropriate specimen collection and lab tests.
  4. Use of prepared study materials including journal articles, written and computer-based notes.
  5. Use of specific ward cases (students to work in groups of about four).
  6. Ward clinical case derived problems and tutorials per body system/study area, carried out with clinical specialists.
  7. Clinical symposia and seminars.
  8. Development of accurate and holistic diagnoses and scientific analysis of patient/client issues.
  9. Awareness of medical ethical issues early and throughout all the study areas.
  10. Development of problem-based investigations.
  11. Development of clinically relevant techniques and research skills.

 

SYNOPSES OF COURSES

 

MCP 3201: Introduction to Clinical Clerkship

Clinical Clerkship: in the areas of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics. Professional Communication Skills, Team work.

 

MCP 4001: Medicine I 

Consolidation and practice of history taking and medical examination (cardiovascular examination, respiratory examination, gastro-intestinal examination, central and peripheral nervous system examination, musculo-skeletal examination and dermatological examination).

Common and important medical conditions: symptoms, typical signs, main differential diagnoses, complications of condition and principles of management (cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, hepato-biliary, endocrine, metabolic, renal, uro-genital, connective tissue, musculo-skeletal, haemopoietic, neurological, dermatological, infective disease).

Common clinical problems: clinical features (history/examination findings) that help differentiate the important causes each complaint, formulation of a list relevant investigations that would assist in determining the specific cause (diagnosis).

 

MCP 4002: Surgery I

History-taking, clinical signs and symptoms, examination. General surgery: all systems, theatre, operative care. Trauma and Orthopaedic surgery: ATLS, controlling bleeding, systematic approach to injuries, fractures, arthritis, sepsis, TB, contractures, backache. Surgical specialties (Urology and Ear, Nose and Throat surgery). Relevant ethics. Appropriate imaging techniques: Relevant physics, imaging machinery and techniques: X-Ray machines, ultrasound, CT and PET scans, magnetic resonance imaging. Preparing and educating the patient. Cost-effective imaging.

Anaesthetics and ICU: Physiology and stages of general, local and regional anaesthesia, the golden rules of anaesthesia, commonly encountered problems, the pre-op visit, operative care, regional anesthetic methods, intravenous anaesthesia, inhalation anaesthesia, equipment for anaesthesia, special situations, medical constraints, ICU care, pain control.

 

MCP 4005: Psychiatry/Mental Health

Introduction to Mental Health: Schools of psychopathology. General psychiatry, psycho-pharmacology, mental retardation, forensic psychiatry, clinical and medical ethics, rehabilitation/occupational therapy, the Mental Health Act, admissions, discharge and follow up, Roles of family, social welfare and community in psychological support and rehabilitation.

 

MCP 4006: Clinical Pharmacology

Fundamental aspects of drug action and the pharmacology of drugs acting on specific physiological systems, Emphasis is placed on factors governing their selection for use in the treatment of specific disease states, and on side-effects and interactions. Poisons.

 

MCP 5003: Paediatrics

 Introductory block: Pathophysiological aspects of paediatric diseases. Appropriate history-taking, clinical signs and symptoms, examination of neonates and children, growth and development, immunisation, integrated management of childhood illness and disorders. Congenital malformations, birth injury, pre-term and small-for-date babies, diseases of the new-born, malnutrition, infectious diseases, epidemic diseases, systemic diseases/disorders. Social deprivation and child abuse. Paediatric radiology and imaging. Relevant medical ethics. Appropriate radiological techniques. (Aspects of the law in medicine as observed in paediatric practice e.g. Child abuse , how to evaluate and report). Clinical indicators of serious illness. Factors associated with mortality in children. Care of the critically ill child. Acute and chronic diseases. Failure to thrive. Haematological disorders. Neoplastic diseases. Oncology and immunological disorders. Allergic disorders. Ethical issues. Child Advocacy and rights of the child.

Final block: Emergency paediatrics with clinical participation. Ward rounds and case presentations. Tutorials. Data and slide interpretations. Neonatal care in special care baby unit. Practical paediatric procedures.

 

MCP 5004: Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Relevant basic science topics in obstetrics and gynaecology. It also covers the following areas: Obstetric history-taking, clinical signs and symptoms and examination, normal and abnormal pregnancy, the course of normal pregnancy (labour, delivery, operative procedures, post-delivery care). Gynaecological history-taking, clinical signs and symptoms, examination, contraception, infections, fistulae and incontinence, abnormal menstruation and sub-fertility, tumours, menopause, surgical techniques. Relevant ethics. Appropriate and cost-effective imaging techniques. The requirements of the law in Obstetrics and Gynaecology e.g. rape and sexual assault cases evaluation and reporting. Maternal deaths, legal aspects and reporting procedures also require students to complete a log as in the old curriculum. The emphasis on clinical obstetrics and gynaecology, important and common topics are revisedin the lectures. The log book emphasizes assisting and performing common procedures.

 

MCP 6000: Elective Medical Placement

Students are expected to carry out Elective projects over a period of approximately six (6) weeks at a place approved by the Division and the Faculty. These projects shall be assessed in a fashion that is similar to that of the Attachment Report. The students will be required to provide a certificate of attendance and write a report detailing their experiences.

 

MCP 6001: Medicine II

Consolidation of knowledge from MCP 4001 with emphasis on clinical problem solving and management plus therapeutics of common medical problems. Transition to Junior Resident Medical Officer (JRMO) year, Medicine and the Law, Medical Ethics.

 

MCP 6002: Surgery II

Surgical specialties: Neurological surgery: aneurisms, tumours, thromboses, abscesses. Ophthalmology: infectious disorders of eye, cataract, glaucoma, trachoma. Endocrine surgery: disorders of thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, tumours. Plastic surgery: Skin grafts, flaps/Z-plasty, contractures, reconstruction. Paediatric surgery: correction of congenital disorders e.g. hydrocephalus, maldescended testis, imperforate anus, cleft lip/palate. Review of general and orthopaedic surgery and trauma. Appropriate, cost-effective imaging techniques and procedures; imaging algorithms. Relevant aspects of the law in medicine as perceived and practiced by the surgeon shall be taught e.g. Table deaths, deaths from unnatural causes, trauma victims and completing affidavit for the courts informed consent.

 

Assessments

In each year assessment will be done annually by mixed forms of continuous assessment (40%) followed by final written and oral examinations (60%).

 

Continuous assessments (40%):

a) Tests and quizzes e.g. at end of each course topic (approx).

b) Practical reports, assignments, students' presentations and case reports.

 

Final examinations (annual):

a) Written papers for all courses ± MCQ (30%).

b) A clinical examination and viva voce examination (30%).

 

Elective Placement Reports:

a) Supervisors combined assessment forms (20%).

b) Final viva voce examination with report presentation (20%).

c) Final attachment report including any project work (60%).