Zimbabwe Journal of Science & Technology

Filling the gap between theory and practice

GUIDE TO CITING REFERENCES

(Customised for ZJST based on the Harvard system)

1. INTRODUCTION

Throughout the course of your studies, you will be expected to support the arguments, recommendations and discussions made in your manuscripts, through references to other published works. These references can come from many different sources such as academic journals, textbooks, newspaper articles, websites etc. 

 “Citation” is the technical term given to the practice of referring to the work of other authors. It allows you to give due credit to the ideas of others, whilst also providing evidence of the breadth and depth of your own background reading. It also allows those who read your work, to easily identify and locate the references you have provided. 

This guide provides you with examples of how to correctly cite references within the text of your manuscripts. It also provides guidance on how to compile an accurate list of references / bibliography. 

The guide is based on the Harvard system of referencing.  The Harvard system does allow for some variations in style (e.g. in your list of references, the title of a book can be italicized or underlined), but the journal wishes to adopt consistency throughout in the way in which documents are cited or referenced.
The following guidelines are based upon the conventions provided by the University of Manchester’s Faculty of Humanities (2008).


2. CITING REFERENCES WITHIN THE TEXT OF YOUR MANUSCRIPT

The way in which you refer to a source within the text of your work will depend upon a number of factors. These include the nature of the sentence/paragraph being written and the nature / number of authors of the source. 

2.1: Single author 

Direct citation: 
If the author’s name forms a natural part of your sentence, then the surname should be followed by the year of publication (within parentheses). 

Example:
 • David (2006) argues that…

Single author continued; indirect citation: 
If you do not mention the author’s name within your text, then you should place the author’s name and year of publication, in parentheses, at the end of the sentence. 

Example:
• The study of epistemological concepts is subjective. (David 2006).


2.2: Two authors 

Direct citation: 
Both authors should be noted within your text. 

Example:
• Hardly and Thompson (2000) identify enormous variations between countries in terms of the importance of foreign holdings. 

Indirect citation: 
Place at the end of the sentence, in parentheses. 

Example:
• The importance of foreign holdings varies significantly from country to country (Hardly and Thompson 2000). 


2.3: Multiple authors 

Direct citation: 
When there are more than two authors for a work, you should give only the first author’s name, followed by the Latin term ‘et al’ (and all) in italics, and the year of publication in parentheses. 

Example:
 • Marshal et al (2010) argue that a continuum concept of records keeping is more efficient than its life cycle counterpart.

Indirect citation: 
Your citation should be placed within parentheses at the end of the sentence. 

Example:
 •A continuum concept of records keeping is more efficient than its life cycle counterpart. (Marshal et al 2010)  


2.4: Authors of different titles 

Direct citation: 
Cite both names, and follow name with the year of publication in parentheses.

Example: 
• Davidson (2004) and Parker (2010) are in agreement about the importance of the continuum concept in records and archives management. 


Indirect citation: 
Cite both names at the end of the sentence, with author’s name, followed by date of publication, and separated by a semi-colon in parentheses.

Example:
• The continuum concept of integrating records and archiving systems is crucial for an effective information management strategy. (Davidson 2004; Palmer 2010).


2.5: Several works by a single author (in different years) 

If more than one publication by a particular author illustrates your point, and these are published in different years, you should cite the references in chronological order. 

Direct citation: 

Example:
• Hardly (1999, 2010) argues that… 

Indirect citation: 
Place at end of sentence within parentheses 

Example:
• (Hardly 1999, 2010) 


2.6: Several works by a single author (in the same year) 

When the same author has published more than one cited document within the same year, lower case letters should be used to differentiate each document. 

Example: 
• Mintzberg (1973a) took a new approach to the concept of leadership… 
   Mintzberg (1973b) speculated further on the manager’s leadership role… 

If you wish to refer to the works on a single occasion, or if the same point is made by both publications, then refer to both within parentheses by using lower case letters.

Example: 
• Mintzberg (1973a, b) summarized eight current schools of thought on the different roles of the manager.


2.7: Author of a chapter within an edited text 

If the author’s work appears as a chapter within part of a larger work that is edited by somebody else (quite common with academic textbooks), use the author of the chapter for the citation within your text. You will however, need to provide the full bibliographic details in your list of references (See section 3 for further details). 

Example:
 • Lagh (1999) argues that there are differences among archival paradigms at institutional and national as well as international level. 


2.8: Corporate authors 

If the work is by a recognised organisation, and has no personal author, then use the organisation’s name for the citation. 

Example:
• It has been suggested that the proposed poultry market reforms might have a detrimental effect on competition within the industry (Consumer Council of Zimbabwe, 2008). 

N.B. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for associations, companies, institutions, within your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citation with the abbreviation in parentheses.

Example: 
• Citation 1: (Manchester Business School [MBS], 2008). 
• Citation 2: (MBS, 2008). 


2.9: No author 

If you cannot identify the author of a document (quite common with online sources) then you can use “Anon” to identify the author. You should also provide the title of the document (in italics), and the date of publication.
 
Example:
• Marketing strategy (Anon 2001) 


 2.10: No date 

 The abbreviation “n.d.” should be used if you cannot identify a date of publication. 

Direct citation:
 
Example:
• Coogan (n.d.) states that total sales measures are often used to assess overall trends within the retail sector.  

No date continued, indirect citation:
 
Example:
• Total sales measure is used to assess market level trends in retail sales (Coogan n.d.) 

 


2.11: Citing secondary sources 

If you have read about a particular author’s work, but have been unable to consult the actual work (the primary source) directly, then you need to acknowledge this. 

Direct citation: 

Example:
• Santosh (1999 cited in Kroll 2010) argues that…

Indirect citation: 

Example:
• It can be argued that the organizing abilities of the manufacturing concern in Japan have succeeded in creating a hierarchy of careers among their subcontractors (Santosh 1999 cited in Kroll 2010).


 2.12: How to quote portions of a published text 

If you want to include a direct statement from a published work, then the sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks. It is also good practice to include the page number, so that the quotation can be easily located if necessary. 

Example:
• Hardly and Thompson (2010:1) feel that, “the most efficient records management systems are not basically electronic systems”. 


If the quotation runs to several lines, then you should indent it. This clearly identifies the quotation as somebody else’s work.
 
Example:
• Darer et al (2005: 12) provide a clear definition of the product concept:  ”The product concept holds that consumers will favour products that offer  the      most quality, performance and innovation features, and that an organisation should thus devote energy to making continuous  product improvements”.