Program in Earth Science is designed for students planning for employment in fields such as groundwater exploration and resource evaluation, groundwater contamination studies, earthquake hazard analysis, mineral exploration, oil and gas exploration, environmental geology and geotechnical investigations. The program is also designed for students intending to take up various research opportunities or considering postgraduate studies in the field of earth sciences
Entry requirements
Normal entry
An applicant must have at least two passes in Physics and Mathematics at Advanced Level of the General Certificate of Education or its equivalent. In addition, he/she must be in possession of a minimum of five Ordinary Level passes that include English Language, Mathematics and a Science subject.
Special entry
Applicants who do not meet the above entry requirements may be considered under special entry with the approval of the University Senate. Students who qualify under this regulation may apply to be exempted from certain courses and examinations. Permission may be given to complete the program for the Bachelor Honours Degree in less than the normal required period provided that no student shall be allowed direct entry into Part III of the programme.
Mature age entry
Applicants who are 25 years of age and above at the time of applying for entry into the programme and are not eligible for normal entry may apply for mature age entry. Candidates must have passed at least five subjects including English Language, Mathematics and a Physical Science subject at 'O' level, and must have demonstrated potential suitability for University studies by virtue of their attainments and /or relevant work experience. Such experience shall be in a relevant field of Earth Sciences.
Normally, applicants should have completed their full-time school or college education at least five years before the time of their application and may be subjected to an oral interview prior to their admission into the degree programme.
Programme Structure
The Programme consists of 4 parts. A student shall register for at least six prescribed and approved modules or their equivalents in each semester. Most of these modules carry practical and fieldwork work where students shall learn and gain an appreciation of the practical and technological applications of Earth science.
Fieldwork
The majority of the modules on the programme have a fieldwork component that is carried out concurrently with the theory part of the modules. Fieldwork comprises the practical component of the degree programme. For a module with a fieldwork component, the fieldwork shall comprise 40% of the overall continuous assessment.
Research Project Module
A student in Part IV is required to undertake a Research Project weighted at two modules.
Industrial Attachment
A student on this programme shall be required to complete an industrial attachment component that runs from January to the end of July during Part III of the programme. At the end of the attachment period, the student shall be required to present both a written and an oral report to the Departmental Panel of Examiners.
ASSESSMENT
Taught modules shall be assessed through continuous assessment and a three-hour final written examination at the end of each semester. Continuous assessment shall be 25% and the written final examination shall be 75% of the final mark.
The Industrial Attachment module shall be assessed by a detailed attachment report and continuous assessment from industrial or field supervisors, a prescribed logbook and a viva voce. The continuous assessment mark from industrial or field supervisors shall constitute 20%, and viva voce 30% and the overall report mark shall constitute 50% of the overall assessment. The Research Project shall be assessed by means of a written research project report and an oral presentation. The oral presentation mark shall constitute 50% of the overall project mark. The research project report shall constitute the other 50% of the overall research project mark.
A minimum of 480 credits shall be required for the degree to be awarded.
WEIGHTING
The Parts of the Degree programme shall be weighted as follows: -
Year I 15%
Year II 20%
Year III 25%
Year IV 40%
YEAR I
SES1101 Introduction to Earth Systems Science 10 Credits
The module is an introduction to the processes of and linkages among major components of planet Earth; Geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere as dynamic and interdependent systems; Influence of human activity on earth systems, structure and dynamics of the Earth; stratigraphy and geological history; climatology; surface processes and evolution of landscapes; biogeography; humans and the environment; Processes operating on and below the earth's surface and the resulting features of landscape, earth structures, and earth materials; Occurrences and utilization of the earth's physical resources.
SPH1101 Mechanics and Relativity 10 Credits
The module is on kinematics and Kinetics: Inertial frames of reference; Motion in two and three dimensions; Dynamics of system of particles; Interactions between bodies, relative of motion; Conservation of momentum and energy; Motion of systems of particles with variable mass; Collisions of particles; Rotational Dynamics: Rotation of rigid bodies; Moment of Inertia and its calculations for bodies of various shapes and about different axes; Work and energy in rotational motion; Angular momentum; Principles of conservation of angular momentum; Gravitation: Kepler's laws of planetary motion; Gravitational potential; Gravitation and gravity; Effect of earth's rotation on "g"; Gyroscope; Motion of a satellite; Coriolis force; The fundamental forces and their unification; Inertial forces in linearly accelerating frame; Oscillatory motion: Simple harmonic motion; Mechanical oscillators; Superposition of S;H;M's; Damped and forced S;H;M;, Lissajous, Resonance; Properties of Matter Elasticity: Hooke's law; Moduli of elasticity and their inter-relationship; Applications of elasticity; Fluid mechanics: Fluid at rest; Surface tension and capillarity; The continuity equation; Various types of flows; Boundary layers and turbulence; Steady state flow of fluids; Bernoulli's equation; Viscous flow and Viscosity; Friction: Nature of frictional forces; Motion in frictional medium; Rolling and sliding friction; Relativity: Space-time frames of reference; Galileo's principle of relativity; Simultaneity of events; Einstein’s Special theory of relativity; Lorentz transformations; Momentum and energy systems.
SPH1107 Electric Circuits and Instruments 10 Credits.
The module is an introduction to electric field; Motion of point charges in electric fields; Lines of force; Electric dipoles in electric fields; Electric flux; Gauss's Law; Electric Scalar Potential; Capacitors in circuits; D;C and A;C circuit analysis; Thevenin and Norton’s Theorems; Power supply, rectifiers and filters; Potential dividers; Introduction to semiconductors, diodes and transistors; Basic Concepts of Electrical Measuring Instruments, Current Measurement and Voltage Measurement, Power Measurement and Energy Measurements, Measurement of other Electrical Quantities, A;C; Bridges, Dielectric Measurement; Frequency Analysis of Circuits: Think in other terms Steady-state sinusoidal analysis and impedance, Magnetic fields: The force between currents; Instrumentation: Measuring System, Transducers/sensors, Signal conditioner, Indicators and Recorders, Measurement of Physical Quantities, Telemetry; Magnetic flux Density; Magnetic intensity, Magnets in magnetic fields; Magnetic dipole moment; Torque on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Motion of charges in magnetic fields; Biot-Savart Law; Ampere's Law; Magnetic field of a solenoid and a bar magnet; Induction and Inductance: Faraday's and Lenz's Law; Electric motors and generators.
SMA1101 Calculus 12 Credits
The module examines the limit of functions; One-sided and infinite limits; Continuity; Differentiation; Definition, basic properties; Rolle's Theorem, mean value theorem, Cauchy’s mean value theorem; Leibniz' rule; Applications; Taylor series; Integration, Definite integrals; Antiderivatives; Fundamental theorem of calculus; Improper integrals; Gamma and Beta functions; Definition of natural logarithm as integral of 1/x and exponential as inverse; Area, volume of revolution, arc length, surface area; Parametric equations; Arc length, surface area; Polar coordinates; Graph sketching; Area in polar coordinates; Complex numbers; Algebra of complex numbers; De Moivre's theorem and exponential form. SMA1102 Linear Algebra 12 Credits The module looks at vector Algebra: Scalar and vector product; Collinear, coplanar vectors; Applications; Equations of lines and planes; Matrices; Products, sums, echelon form, rank, inverse; Determinants; Definition, properties, evaluation; Systems of Linear Equations; Consistency, Gauss’ method, Cramer’s rule; Homogeneous systems; Vector Spaces, linear independence, bases and Subspaces.
SES1202 Physical Geology 10 Credits
This module is about scientific methodology applied to the study of common rock-forming minerals, common rocks, topographic maps, geologic structures and geological maps; Physical processes involved in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock formation, modification and destruction; Physical geology and principles of stratigraphy; Sedimentology: Mechanisms of transport and deposition of siliciclastic sediment; Textual analysis of sedimentary rocks; Sedimentary structures, traces fossils and bioturbation; siliciclastic, diagenesis of carbonate rocks, evaporitic and other sedimentary rocks; earthquakes, stress, displacement and strain; brittle and ductile deformation; classification and petrography of igneous rocks; physical processes in magma chambers; the relationship between chemical and mineralogical composition; types of metamorphism, metamorphic textures and mineral assemblages and Field work.
SCS1201 Computer Applications and Programming 10 Credits
The module explores data types, basic control structures; Python, Object-oriented programming, classes and data hiding, dynamic object construction and destruction, derived classes and inheritance, virtual functions; file processing; engineering applications; Think in other terms Introduction to C++, basic structure of C++, variables, single & Multidimensional arrays, string, for, while, do-while, conditional statement (if, switch, question mark operator), functions, structures, Application of set theory to program specification, Programme design through pseudocode, JSP, Klarner, O, Diagrams and FORTRAN.
SES1203 Geochemistry 10 Credits
The module looks at the earth as a closed geochemical system; Geochronology, Geochemical surveys, orientation soil surveys, Practicalities of a soil survey; Dispersion-primary dispersion, secondary dispersion, primary dispersion patterns, secondary dispersion patterns, displaced anomalies, physical form and classification of secondary dispersion patterns; Geochemical associations; Geochemical data; Analytical terms in geochemistry; Wet analyses; Preparation of samples for analyses, analytical methods in geochemistry, data analysis and data presentation as well as Geochemical techniques for mineral exploration.
SMA1201 Calculus of Several Variables 10 Credits
This module explores the Cartesian coordinates in 3 dimensions; Functions of several variables; Quadric surfaces; Curves; Partial derivatives; Tangent planes; Derivatives and differentials; Directional derivatives; Chain rules; Div, grad and curl; Maxima and minima; Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals; Change of order; Change of variable; Polar and spherical co-ordinates; Line and surface integrals; Green's theorem in the plane; Divergence theorem; Stokes theorem and Applications.
SPH1201 Waves and Optics 10 Credits
This module looks at Coupled Harmonic Oscillations: Normal modes; energy transfer in the coupled system; Coupled oscillations and the wave equation; Anharmonic Oscillations: due to a non-linear return forces; The large amplitude pendulum; Thermal expansion of crystals; Wave Phenomena: Longitudinal and transverse progressive waves; Superposition of waves; pulses and wave packets; Fourier analysis of wave motion; Frequency spectrum; The Fourier analysis of wave motion; Frequency spectrum; The Fourier integral; Waves in 2D and 3D; Resonating cavities and wave guides; Application to fibre optics; Sound: Sound wave propagation in gases and solids; Energy distribution; Reflection and transmission of sound at boundaries; Acoustic phenomena - reverberations; music and noise; Infra and Ultrasound; Applications of ultrasound in medicine; material testing, etc; Young’s two slit experiment; Multi-beam interference; Interference: Newton's rings; Lloyd's mirror Michelson interferometer; Fabry-Perot interferometer; Applications of interferometry; Diffraction: Fraunhoffer diffraction; Diffraction gratings; Fresnel diffraction; Kirchhoff's diffraction theory; Application of diffraction; Polarization: Methods of production of linearly polarised light; Circular and elliptical polarisation and Polarisation of polychromatic light.
SMA1204 Ordinary Differential Equations 10 Credits
The module looks at first order ordinary differential equations; Separable, Linear, Exact; Integrating factors; Existence; Uniqueness; Applications; Second Order Equations; Linear Think in other terms equations and linear differential operators; Linear independence, Wronskian; Ordinary Linear Differential Equations with constant coefficients; Undetermined coefficients; Variation of parameters; Applications; System of Equations; Phase plane portraits for Linear Systems; Introduction to Nonlinear systems; Predator-prey and Volterra-Lotka equations; Series solution of ordinary differential equations; Method of Frobenius; Legendre polynomials and Bessel functions.
CTL 1101 Conflict Transformation & Leadership 10 Credits
The thrust of the module is understanding peace and conflict; theories of conflict; conflict analysis and tools; economic roots of conflict; gender and conflict; leadership; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; women in leadership; leadership ethics; interplay: leadership, conflict and development.
YEAR II
SES2101 Geotectonics and Geo-hazards 10 Credits
This module is an examination of modern tectonic principles and fundamental tectonic elements of the earth’s lithosphere; orogenic belts, cratons, island arcs, rift zones, continental margins, etc; The geological record of plate tectonics past and present; Geotectonic models; plate geometries, geodynamical processes, and sedimentary products; Reconstructing of ancient tectonic settings with an emphasis on methodology (paleomagnetism, basin analysis, and provenance) and case; Mechanical aspects of lithospheric deformation and mantle dynamics; The elastic behaviour of the lithosphere, its thermal structure, the forces that drives plate tectonics, and mantle convection; Tectonic processes and types of plate interaction are then analysed in terms of seismicity, geodetically defined deformation fields, and a range of different approaches to mechanical analysis, includingthin-viscous-sheet theory, block tectonics, critical wedge theory, and fluid mechanics. It also looks at contemporary methods used to identify and assess natural hazards, techniques used for the probabilistic forecasting, spatial representation and communication of hazards; The relationship between hazard information, risk mitigation and emergency management. The module is best offered with a strong focus on the use of case studies.
SES 2102 Geo-Microbiology 10 Credits
The module examines the interactions of microbes with earth materials (soils, rocks, water, etc;); The relationships between the microbial life forms and their environment, from localized niches, that occur on the order of micrometres, to global elemental cycles; Microbial physiology and genetics; geochemical controls on microbial diversity and activity; microbiological controls on geochemical reaction networks; redox and acid-base geochemistry; Biomineralisation, origin and evolution of life, microbial weathering and rock formation, and influences on environmental problems; Bio signatures and life detection and origin and evolution of microbial life.
SES2103 Elements of Geomorphology 10 Credits
The module explores the history and Methodology of Geomorphology: Time scales; Development of scientific methods; Development of major scientific principles pertaining to geomorphology; Reconstructing the past: dating techniques; Structural Geomorphology: - Plate tectonics and global scale landforms, Seismic activity; Development of continents, orogens, continental boundaries, cratons, volcanism; Structural geomorphology of deformed rocks, fractures and faults, mountain building, landforms controlled by faults and folds; Process Geomorphology: - Weathering and Karst landforms; Slope processes / mass movement; Hydrology, flow principles in open channels, scientific means to determine discharge and velocity, rating curves, hydrographs and flood frequencies. It also looks at fluvial processes and landforms; Glacial processes and landforms; Glacial Periods; Periglacial processes and landforms; Coastal and aeolian processes and landforms; Geomorphic change: long-term evolution of landscapes and Field Work.
SPH2105 Electromagnetism 10 Credits
The module looks at boundary Value Problems: Poisson's Equations; Solution of Poisson's equation for graded junctions, Child-Langmuir Relation; Laplace's equation; Uniqueness theorem; Solution in one and two variables; 90 O Corner, Potential well, parallel plate capacitor etc; Field and Circuit Theory: Maxwell's Equations for static and harmonically varying Currents; Displacement Current; Applications of circuit Theory and Field Theory; Electromagnetic Waves: Helmholtz generalized Wave equation; Plane waves in dielectric, lossy dielectric and conducting medium; Phase and group velocities; Impedance of the medium; Poynting's Vector; Reflection, refraction, polarization and dispersion of waves; Transmission Lines: Coaxial, Two wire and Infinite plane transmission line; Impedance at a point on a terminated transmission line; Matched impedance; Impedance matching with a quarter wavelength line; Smith Chart and its applications; Rectangular Waveguides; TE and TM mode of propagation; Cut-off frequency, attenuation in guides, Characteristic properties of Waveguides; Cavity resonators; Antennas and Radiation: Retarded Potentials, Radiation field due to a short dipole; Radiation due to half wave dipole; Radiation patterns due to linear arrays; Various types of antennas; Plasmas and Propagation in ionised medium: Definition of plasma in laboratory; Plane waves in ionised medium as well as Faraday rotation.
SES2104 Surviving I 10 Credits
This module is an introduction to surveying; Measurements and SI Units in survey; Errors in measurements: Systematic and Random errors; Methods of eliminating or minimizing these errors; Plane and Geodetic survey; Application of plane and geodetic surveys; Topographical, Cadastral, Hydrographic, Mine, Photo grammetry and Engineering Survey; Chain Surveying; Types of measurements in chain survey; Booking Methods Chain Survey Equipment; Care and maintenance; Methods of setting up; Checks and adjustments to the optical square; Ranging a straight line using a prism square; Taping; Corrections to measured lengths; Temperature, slope, standardization, tension, reduction to mean sea level; Electromagnetic measurements; Microwave, Infrared and Laser Instruments; Compass Surveying; Meridian, magnetic bearing, true north/geographic north, isogons, agonic line and magnetic declination; Factors affecting declination, types of compasses; Bearings; Elimination of local attraction, compass traverses, distance measurement; Adjustment of compass traverses using Bowditch graphical method and Think in other terms reconnaissance work for compass surveys; Areas of regular and irregular figures; Planimetry; Levelling: - dumpy, tilting and automatic levels; Levelling for construction, longitudinal and cross-sections, grading of constructions as well as cut and fill work.
SORS 2106 Probability Theory 10 Credits
The module outlines probability; Random/Statistical Experiments, Sample Spaces, Events, Set Theory; Axioms of probability; Laws of probability; Finite Sample Spaces; Conditional Probability, Independent events; Random Variables and Probability Distributions; Discrete probability distributions; Continuous probability distributions; Discrete bivariate distributions; Continuous bivariate distributions; Marginal probability distributions; Independent random variables; Conditional probability distributions; Distributions of functions of single random variables; Conditional probability distributions of Mathematical Expectation; Expectations of discrete and continuous random variables; Expectation of a function of a single random variable; Expectation of a function of several random variables; Expectation of a function of a single random variable; Expectation of a function of several random variables; Properties of expectations; Variance and Covariance; Markov and Chebyshev inequalities; Moment generation functions; Properties of moment generating functions; Special Distributions; Bernoulli, Binomial, Geometric, Negative Binomial, Hypergeometric, Poisson distributions; Normal, Gamma, Exponential and Beta distributions.
SES2201 Soil Physics 10 Credits
The module explores basic characteristics of soils, permeability of soils, seepage and site investigation; Basic Characteristics of Soils: Soil-phase diagrams, definitions and calculations of the following soil properties - Bulk density, dry density, void ratio, porosity, water content, degree of saturation, specific gravity of soil particles, bulk unit weight, saturated unit weight, dry unit weight, submerged density, submerged unit weight and water content; Determination of water content of a soil sample and specific gravity of soil grains are to be carried out, including classification of soil by the sieve analysis method and the Cassagrande's apparatus; Permeability of Soils: Darcy’s Law, coefficient of permeability and its determination by construct head method –Guelph Permeameter, falling head method and pumping well test analysis; Seepage: Pore water pressure and effective stress in a soil mass, critical hydraulic gradient, quicksand conditions and piping, drawing of flow nets and determination of factor of safety against ping; Site Investigation: methods used to collect soil samples for identification and testing - trial pits, hand auger or post-hole auger, deep boring and drilling methods and some Field work.
SES2202 Theory of Seismology 10 Credits
This module explores the wave Theory: Fundamentals of wave motion; seismic wave types; Stress tensor, strain tensor, stress-strain relations; linearized equations of motion; elastic moduli; The wave equation: dilatational and rotational solutions; separation of variables; plane and spherical waves; Reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane boundary; independence of SH and P and of SV waves; boundary conditions; P, SV and SH waves incident at the free surface of a homogeneous half-space and at general interfaces; energy conversions; Rayleigh waves for a homogeneous half-space; Love waves for a two-layer half- Think in other terms space; Superposition of plane waves, group velocity, dispersion; Free oscillations, toroidal and spheroidal modes; Earthquake Seismology: The Earthquake Source: Focal mechanisms, moment tensors, source time function; Earthquake Mechanics: Friction and fracture, populations, dynamics, scaling; Seismic Recording: Sensors, recorders, networks and arrays; Seismograms: Natural and synthetic, time and frequency domain, combined influence of source, ray path, recording site and instrument; Earthquake Location: Ray parameters (arrays) and the Geiger method (networks); Global Earth Structure: Layered structure from travel time tables and 3D structure from seismic tomography.
SES2203 Elements of Meteorology 10 Credits
This module outlines Local Area Forecast, Heat transfer, Temperature humidity and pressure in Meteorology; Moisture and Atmospheric Stability, Forms of Condensation and Precipitation; Air Pressure and Winds, Air Masses, Thunderstorms and Tornadoes, Surface and Upper-Air Charts; T-Ф graphs, Converting raw Radiosonde Data into a forecast; Recognizing specific RADAR and other satellites signatures and forecasting weather; Forecasting SimulationsForecasting weather for a specific location; Field and laboratory work.
SES2204 Surveying II 10 Credits
The module covers the spatial coordinates system or Gaussian system of coordinates; Traversing, triangulation and resection; Fieldwork/reconnaissance, station marking, angular measurement and centring errors; Sources of errors during angle measurement, distance measurement and the three-tripod system; Determination of angular misclosures in closed polygon and closed route traverses and distribution; Coordinate misclosures during traversing and their distribution by the Bowditch and Transit methods; Types and classification of triangulation fieldwork; Adjustment of angles in braced quadrilaterals and centre point polygons using the method of equal shifts and coordinate calculations; Resection calculations using Collins Auxiliary Point method and Tan K Formula; Theodolites and theodolite work: Temporary and permanent adjustments of theodolite angle measurement using; the repetition, directional and sector methods; Tachometry work; Curves: circular, reverse, compound, transition and vertical curves; Theory and calculations; Setting out methods: Site inspection, error detection, communication on site and stages; Vertical control, temporary bench marks, sight rails, travellers and boring rods; Slope rails or batter boards, profile boards; Positioning techniques; Setting out Civil Engineering structures and Practical work.
SMA2104 Partial Differential Equations 10 Credits
The module is on Fourier Analysis; Fourier series and Fourier transforms; Laplace Transforms: Definition basic results; Heaviside function; Convolution; Applications to the solution of ordinary differential equations; Sturm-Liouville problems; Orthogonality; Partial Differential Equations; Classification of second order partial differential equations; The partial differential equations of mathematical physics; Derivation of the wave equation and heat equation in one dimension; Separation of variables; Fourier sine and cosine transforms and Fourier trans-form methods. SMA2206 Numerical Analysis 10 Credits Think in other terms The module looks at errors in numerical analysis; Taylor Series; Solutions of Equations in One Variable: Bisection and Newton-Raphson methods; Fixed point iteration; Order to Convergence; Direct and Iterative Methods of Solving Linear Systems; Gaussian elimination with scaled partial pivoting; Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel iterations; Convergence criteria; Interpolation and Extrapolation; Lagrange interpolating polynomial; Newton interpolating polynomial; Richardson extrapolation; Integration; Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule; Gaussian quadrature and Numerical Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations.
YEAR III
SES3101 Remote Sensing 10 Credits
The module explores electromagnetic (EM) and remote sensing- Interaction of EM radiation with the Earth’s atmosphere; Interaction of EM radiation with the Earth’s surface; Sensorspassive sensors and active sensors: RADAR, LIDAR and Platforms of remote sensing: Airborne and Space borne; Image data characteristics; Photographic systems: aerial camera; Multispectral scanners: Whiskbroom, push broom, Earth observation systems; Thermal infrared remote sensing; Digital data processing: Image pre-processing - radiometric correction and geometric correction; Image enhancement and visualisation; Band transformations; Visual image interpretation; Digital image classification; Forest and Agricultural Crop Inventories, wetlands mapping and Productivity Assessment, Land Use Mapping /Land Cover mapping, Environmental Impact Assessment (Coastal Erosion, etc;) Predictive Models for Archaeology and Highway Planning, Urban Applications of Remote Sensing, Delineating subsurface structures and fieldwork.
SES3102 Potential Field Exploration Methods 10 Credits
The module examines the role of gravity and magnetics in exploration; Conservative forces, Central force fields, Value of a scalar potential, Divergence theorem, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, Spherical Harmonic Analysis: general solution, solution for rotating Earth, significance of terms, International Gravity Formula; Absolute and relative gravity measurements, Gravity instruments, Data acquisition, land gravity data, marine gravity data, airborne gravity data, satellite methods, Reduction of gravity data, instrument, tidal and drift corrections, free air correction, Bouguer correction, borehole gravity, isostasy; Anomaly separation and filtering: smoothing, gridding, least squares, Fourier filtering, Interpretation of gravity data, uniqueness problem, direct approach, indirect methods, rock densities, gravity due to simple bodies, solid angle method, line-integral method, chart methods, computer-aided interpretation and field work. It also looks at the earth’s magnetic field: the main field, source, distribution, secular variations, external field, International Geomagnetic Reference Field; Rock magnetism, susceptibility, remanent: TRM, CRM, DRM, paleomagnetism and effect on present-day field; Acquisition of magnetic data: measuring susceptibility and magnetism, land magnetic data, marine magnetic data, airborne magnetic data, Reduction of magnetic data: diurnal correction, drift correction, regional correction; Anomaly separation and filtering: filtering, reduction to pole, downward and upward continuation; Interpretation of magnetic anomalies: Poisson's formula, magnetic field due to simple bodies, solid angle method, basement depth determinations, computer-aided interpretation; Applications to environmental Think in other terms and engineering studies: delineating structural trends, mapping structures, detection of archaeological objects and field work.
SES3103 Research Methods 10 Credits
This module is about research designs, Literature survey, Qualitative and quantitative methodology, Technical Report writing, Ethics and confidentiality in technical reporting, Presentation of Graphs, Tables, Figures, Data collection and analysis; Preparation of abstracts and manuscripts, Referencing and citation of references, Writing business proposal for consultative work and research grants, Research Budgets, Research presentation; Field procedures as well as safety in the field.
SES 3104 Principles of Surface and Groundwater Hydrology 10 Credits
The module highlights the hydrologic Cycle: Basic picture of the hydrologic cycle including storage, fluxes, and residence times; Concepts of discharge, watershed, and drainage or catchment basin introduced; Infiltration: Introduction to soil moisture; Rainfall rates, interception, depression storage, and infiltration; Measuring infiltration; Calculation of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities from infiltration methods with numerical solutions; Ground Water: Overview of aquifers, the water table, streams, springs, marshes and wells; Porosity, specific yield, field capacity, and wilting points in soils and rocks; Permeability and Hydraulic Conductivity of rocks and soils; Application of Darcy's law; Well hydraulics, practical interpretation of well pumping tests and log test data, failing head test, Steady and unsteady groundwater flow; Flow to wells; Well function and Theis Method; Various methods for determination of sequence of strata and ground water levels. It also looks at water Quality: elements of groundwater surface water interaction, surface and groundwater contaminant systems, Dissolved materials; Contaminant process; introduction to groundwater contamination, historical incidents, advection, dispersion, diffusion, biodegradation of groundwater contamination; Transport, diffusion, and remediation of pollutants through the soils as well as field work.
SES 3105 Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods 10 Credits
The module explores the Archie’s law, Factors affecting current flow - resistivity, permittivity, permeability, isotropic and anisotropic media; Self-potential method; Mechanisms of producing natural ground potentials; Fixed and moving source resistivity methods; Apparent resistivity, field layouts, Data interpretation/curve matching; Electrical tomography; Quantitative solutions for layered media; Induced Polarisation -physical basis of the electromagnetic (EM) technique, Frequency and time domain induced polarisation; The pseudosections; Case studies; Generation of Induced EM fields; Propagation of EM waves in the ground; Time domain and frequency domain techniques; Dip angle measurement, AFMAG/Audio-frequency, HLEM, VLF, Airborne EM systems; Telluric and magnetotelluric methods of surveying; Applications to environmental and engineering studies: Groundwater exploration and quality, characterisation of geothermal, minerals exploration, location archaeological objects and field work.
SES3106 Petrology 10 Credits
The module has an overview of Fundamental Concepts, Composition and Classification of Magmatic Rocks, Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Silicate Melts and Volatile Fluids in Magma Systems Crystal-Melt Equilibria in Magmatic Systems, Chemical Dynamics of Melts and Crystals, Kinetic Paths and Fabric of Magmatic Rocks, Physical and Thermal Dynamics of Bodies of Magma, Magma Ascent and Emplacement: Field Relations of Intrusions, Magma Extrusion: Field Relations of Volcanic Rock Bodies, Generation of Magma, Differentiation of Magmas, Magmatic Petrotectonic Associations, Metamorphic Rocks and Metamorphism: An Overview, Petrography of Metamorphic Rocks: Fabric, Composition, and Classification, Metamorphic Mineral Reactions and Equilibria, Evolution of Imposed Metamorphic Fabrics: Processes and Kinetics, Metamorphism at Convergent Plate Margins: P–T–t Paths, Facies, and Zones and Precambrian Rock Associations. SES3200 Industrial Attachment 60 Credits The student shall normally be attached to an institution/company for a period of six months. He/she shall work under the direction and supervision of a supervisor from the institution/company and an academic supervisor from the university.
YEAR IV
SES 4101 Seismic Exploration Methods 10 Credits
The module explores the head wave, refraction profiles; Use of seismic reflection and refraction methods for petroleum and mineral exploration and environmental monitoring; introduction to seismic imaging, instruments for seismic data acquisition; interpretation of seismic data, Static and dynamic corrections; Velocity analysis and CMP Stacking, Elimination of multiples, Residual static -237 -corrections, Time to depth conversion, Seismic Imaging and Migration; Seismic reflection methods in engineering and environmental applications; Tomography, Inversion of velocity anomalies, Cross-hole tomography, mapping shallow reflectors, Interpretation of seismic data, Attributes, coherence analysis in 3D data sets; Application of seismic methods in mapping, exploration of hydrocarbons, geotechnical, groundwater, hazard analysis; Applications to environmental and engineering studies: Groundwater exploration, mapping fracture zones, delineating bedrock, detection of cavities, exploration of hydrocarbons and Fieldwork.
SES 4102 Borehole Logging 10 Credits
The module looks at description, application, interpretation-Large spacing core logging, electrical and dielectric logs; Induction measurements; description, application, interpretation; Nuclear well logging: Natural gamma; Density and Neutron log and their description, application, and interpretation; Acoustic well-logging, Dipmeter logging, Temperature logging, Think in other terms Sonic logs Seismic or geophone velocity survey, description, application and interpretation; Borehole gravity meter Measurements of Resistivity, Conventional Resistivity Logs, Dual Induction, Dual Laterolog Micro Spherically Focused Log, Measurements of Porosity, Density Log; Measurements of formation Dips; Log interpretation, correlation, lithology identification, porosity determination, location of permeable beds, identification of hydrocarbon saturation; Geological applications of well logs, stratigraphy and sedimentology from well logs, compaction, volcanic rocks; Fracture detection, fault detection, well logging methods for rock mechanics, Well Logging for Mining and fieldwork.
SES 4103 Groundwater Modelling and Management 10 Credits
This module explores numerical modelling as a tool of managing aquifer systems; General concepts of numerical modelling, Flow nets, Analytical methods, Method of images (Flow near boundaries) in aquifer characterization; Well design, development, and construction, Finite difference, Finite element, Boundary element, Green element methods; Artificial recharge as a management tool: Methods of artificial recharge; Groundwater pollution and control; Introduction to contaminated land, threshold values, source-pathway-target framework, remediation; Protection zoning; Investigation of contaminated land; qualitative risk assessment; Landfills; waste degradation, dilute and disperse, modern landfills, barriers, site selection, monitoring and fieldwork.
SES 4104 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 10 Credits
The module has an introduction to GIS and spatial data types, Data processing systems, Determining and mapping position – data quality, spatial referencing, measures of location error on maps, satellite based positioning: GPS; Data entry and preparation – spatial data input, data preparation, point data transformation, advanced operations on continuous fields; Spatial data analysis – classification of analytical data capabilities, overlay function, neighbourhood functions, network analysis, error propagation in spatial data processing; Data visualisation – GIS and maps, the visualisation process, the cartographic toolbox, map cosmetic, map dissemination; Geologic and hydrologic applications: Fault-line Analysis and Patter Recognition, Spectral Discrimination of Rocks and Soils, Geobotany and Mineral/Metal Exploration, Hydrologic Studies of Watersheds as well as laboratory work and fieldwork.
SES 4105 Structural Geology 10 Credits
The module examines the measurement of altitude and location, interpretation and construction of contour maps, geometric methods: Altitude calculations, dimension calculations normal, thrust and strike-slip faults; Introduction to stereographic projections, stereographic poles and rotations, structural analysis; Interpretation of geologic maps, stress; analysis of data from rock-deformations; Techniques and assumption used in the construction of structural cross sections; Analysis and interpretation of natural deformation; The fault, fold and ductile flow systems accompanying deformation of the earth's crust; Description of macroscopic structures, fold mechanisms; Analysis of fracture array geometry, faults, shear zones and unconformities, folds in cross-sections, Primary and Secondary geological structures, rock types - sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic rocks, rock forming minerals; Introduction to cross-section balancing; Two dimensional finite strain analysis; Scale modelling of structures and fieldwork.
SES 4010 Research Project 10 Credits
Students undertake a research project on a topic approved and supervised by the department. Industrial supervision may also be acceptable for projects linked to where students were attached during industrial attachment. The project report shall comprise the honours thesis of the Programme. The research project shall be equivalent to two modules.
SES 4201 Climate Dynamics 10 Credits
The module has an overview of Climate Variability and the Science of Climate Dynamic; Basics of Global Climate; Physical Processes in the Climate System; El Niño and Year-to-Year Climate Prediction; Climate Models: Constructing a Climate Model; Numerical representation of atmospheric and oceanic equations; Parameterization of small scale processes; The hierarchy of climate models; Climate simulations and climate drift; Evaluation of climate model simulations for present day climate; The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks; Climate Model Scenarios for Global Warming; Greenhouse gases, aerosols and other climate forcings; Global-average response to greenhouse warming scenarios; Spatial patterns of warming for time-dependent scenarios; Climate response time in transient climate change; extreme events; Climate change observed to date; Emissions paths and their impacts; Downscaling techniques, Palaeoclimates as well as the use of fossils to reconstruct environments and climates.
SES 4202 Environmental Geoscience and Impact Assessment 10 Credits
This module highlights the Geo-Environmental applications- Pollution and contamination; leachate, pollution and groundwater, geophysical “detectability” of pollutants, pollution pathways, detection, monitoring and remediation, rising groundwater levels, abandoned mine workings; Landfill sites; surveys of landfills, characterising landfill sites, investigative methods, pollution near landfills, compaction and consolidation of landfill material, anthropogenic gases; Radioactivity and radioactive waste; Geological appraisal for radioactive waste storage and the protection of groundwater quality. It also looks at concepts and issues in environmental planning and ecological conservation; Objectives of and statutory provisions for EIA's in Zimbabwe; EIA techniques and analyses; mitigatory measures; project implementation; The EIA report; draft EIA review (assessing the quality of draft Environmental Impact statement etc;); project implementation; decommissioning; Case Studies such as EIA of water resource, energy development, mining, etc and field work.
SES 4203 Geotechnical Investigations 10 Credits
The module outlines delineating geological boundaries; Depth to bedrock, near-horizontal bedrock, varying depth bedrock, weathered bedrock, buried valleys including potentially hazardous fracture zones and faults, cavities and mine shafts; Evaluation of ground conditions; soil corrosivity, soil stiffness profile, Rock mass and fracture state, rock mass deformability, rippability, diggability, trenchability and liquefaction potential; Foundations of structuresStrength profile, settlement estimation, response to dynamic loading, subsidence risk; Dams and Reservoirs- Site location and appraisal, investigations of dam foundations, Leakage, Ground treatment; Surface excavations- method, groundwater, slope stability; investigations from within subsurface excavations; Route surveys- route appraisal and fieldwork.
SES 4204 Quality Assurance and Project Management 10 Credits
The module is on general and personnel management; Management control and Marketing Strategies; Business and Finance; Quality control plans for factories with special reference to physics equipment; Cost Effective Product Development; ISO standards; Research and Development Strategies in factories; Quality and reliability; Policies, programmes and projects; Project Management Concepts; Project Planning: Mobilization, project scope, project quality, scheduling, critical path method, staffing, budgeting, risk management; Project directing and leading Project controlling; Project evaluation, Cost Benefit Analysis and activity based costing.
SES 4205 TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 10 CREDITS
SES 4205 Time Series Analysis and Signal
The module is on the time series, Z-transform, 1D Fourier Transform, Properties, FFT, Design of digital filters, stability and accuracy, Linear systems and convolution, Design of deconvolution operators for 1D time series, Causality and stability, Deconvolution in the time and in the frequency domain, Deconvolution of noisy data, determination of trade-off parameters Predictive de-convolution and FX SNR enhancement filters; Non-Parametric spectral analysis, The autocorrelation function, the periodgram, tapering, variance versus bias, Parametric spectral analysis: MA, AR and ARMA models and their spectral representation, Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis, Multichannel analysis: para-metric and non-parametric; The 2D discrete Fourier Transform, properties, symmetries, 2D deconvolution and filtering, The Hartley transform, Eigen images, The Radon transform, Eigen-structure based coherence measures, Spectral estimators based on eigen-coherence measures, Wave-number estimation in seismic data as well as time-frequency analysis.